How to Prepare for an Exam Effectively

Most of us were guilty at least once in our lives for failing to prepare for an exam. Some students look forward to it, but there are those who dread the approaching date. So how do the brilliant students in class prepare for an exam?

Enough Time to Study
The best way to prepare is not to study the day before the exam, but everyday even if there are no upcoming exams. Be attentive during classes, take notes and review them every night so you will only need to study a few items before the exam and even get plenty of rest. Cramming will only make you anxious and forgetful.

Create a Study Space
Designate a corner in your room for studying. It has to be quiet, comfortable, clean and organized. Fill it with items that will help you relax and focus, not distract you. Place all your school items and books neatly so you don’t waste time looking for your notes when you need it.

Make Use of Tools
People study differently. If making an outline, charts, diagrams, lists and flashcards can help you remember and understand your lessons, then make use of every available tool. Use the Internet for something other than social media. There are a lot of things around you that can help you study.

Healthy Mind, Healthy Body
Don’t skip meals even when you’re studying. Eat a balanced diet everyday. Drink plenty of water so you don’t get dehydrated. Your body is like a machine that needs to be maintained for you to function well. Go out, exercise, socialize and breathe fresh air on your free time. Do the things that make you happy like your hobbies.

No All-Nighters
Losing sleep is bad. Losing sleep because you needed to review is even worse. You will never remember everything you’ve read for the next day because you’re tired. That will only cause more anxiety.

Fewer Distractions
Days before the exam, you should avoid activities that will distract you like going out with friends, watching television programs and movies, video games, and even starting a new book. You can still relax and enjoy, but limit these activities until the exams are over. A week’s preparation should be enough not to make you worry about the results.

Practice Makes Perfect
If you know you’re going to have a difficult time with a particular topic, you should prepare for that ahead of time. Make use of reviewers and study manuals. Keep practicing and researching until you’re confident you can produce a decent answer.

Ask for Help
If all else fails, don’t hesitate to ask for help. You might have a friend who’s good at math or maybe you can also approach your instructors for questions. Ask some family members to help you review or organize a group study with your classmates.

No matter what the results are, stop worrying and just focus on the next exams. If you prepared well, you won’t do so bad.

Obscure Literary Genres You Probably Haven’t Heard Of

Looking for a new read? Bored with the usual selection of books? Perhaps you need to try one of these genres.

Taken from the name of John Kendrick Bangs, it is a sub-genre of fantasy in which the lives of historical and famous people after death are the subject. Bangs did not actively make up a new genre, but it was a common theme in four of his works such as Mr. Munchausen.

This is a type of coming-of-age novel. The lead character in the story undergoes a transformation through education and experience. Examples of this genre are Parzival by Wolfram von Eschenbach, The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn by Mark Twain, and The Kite Runner by Khaled Hosseini.

Comedy of Manners
Comedy of manners is a form of satire which focuses on the manners of some social classes. They feature stock characters who act like their stereotypes. Notable examples are The Country Wife by William Wycherley and Hay Fever by Noel Coward.

The name is derived from the Greek words meaning “work” and “path.” Reading ergodic literature requires non-trivial participation from the reader to reconstruct the text. It means that the traditional way of reading text from start to finish simply won’t do. The narratives are sometimes not written in order just like in House of Leaves by Mark Z. Danielewski.

Hard Science Fiction
While most science fiction relies on existing technology and theories, hard science fiction ups the tempo with its emphasis on scientific accuracy. If you don’t mind highly technical lingo and even computations, you should read Tau Zero by Poul Anderson, Contact by Carl Sagan, and the Grand Tour Series by Ben Bova.

Hardboiled fiction blurs the line between crime fiction and detective stories. The genre has probably popularized the antihero lead character, who has a cynic view of the world after witnessing violence and crime from gangs and even the system that’s supposed to protect the people from it. Examples are The Big Sleep by Raymond Chandler and The Maltese Falcon by Dashiell Hammett.

Punk is a sub-genre of science fiction in which the main character is often marginalized, rebellious, disillusioned and cynical. Steampunk novels are set in an alternate period like the Victorian era. Cyberpunk on the other hand focuses on the impact of modern technology on people such as body modifications. Examples are Perdido Street Station by China Mieville and The Difference Engine by Bruce Sterling and William Gibson.

This Chinese fantasy sub-genre is similar to mythological fantasy in the West. The theme is usually the lives and exploits of the Chinese mythology deities, monsters, immortals and heroes. One example is the Journey to the West by Wu Cheng’en.

Wuxia focuses on martial arts. Most of the works are set in a fantasy world, but others also include historical figures in ancient China. One example is the Romance of the Three Kingdoms by Luo Guanzhong, which is a romantic retelling of the Three Kingdoms period.

Things You Don’t Need at Home

Clutter takes up most space of our homes and let’s face it, we don’t need about half of the stuff that we keep. Maybe it’s time to be a bit selective and start cleaning out our homes? Throughout the years, we, as human beings, tend to horde an enormous amount of stuff which we don’t even use. What happens when we have way too much stuff? Well, we tend to undervalue what we have. The more we have, the easier it is to lose. Why? Because as human beings, we can’t possibly have the energy to take care of every single thing in our possession. This is why you have to be selective of the things in your home. There are some things that belong in your house and there are some things that don’t.

Here are a few things you could definitely throw away:

1. Old Magazines
Yup, time to throw your old magazines away. Hold on, we know that there are certain parts of each magazine you enjoy which is why we are telling you not to throw the entire thing! Instead of keeping the whole magazine, cut out the part you want to keep and throw the rest. You can even compile all of your cut-outs into one single scrap book. Besides, wouldn’t it be easier for you to see the important parts of your old magazines in one single scrap book rather than having to browse through them one by one?

2. Broken Gadgets
Oh snap, sometimes we aren’t ready to throw away our old gadgets. Maybe it’s because we’ve spent a good deal of our money acquiring them but then again, they don’t work. Remember those gadgets which used to function perfectly until they broke and you promised yourself you would have them fixed? Yup, those gadgets got to go! There aren’t many gadgets worth keeping for a long time. Sometimes, you need an upgrade. This means you got to let go.

3. Old Clothes
The sad part about having a lot of clothes is becoming indecisive of what you would like to wear. Now, why would you keep a massive amount of clothes if you aren’t even going to use each and every one of them? Although some of your clothes might have sentimental value, not all of them are useful anymore. Time to take out a couple of your clothes which you don’t use anymore.

Here are but a few things you could get rid of for a tidier house.

Cleaning Out Your Refrigerator

Oh oh. Maybe you’ve left a piece of cheese or a spoiled meal in the refrigerator and it’s starting to stink. Yikes! Well, guess it’s time to start cleaning your refrigerator. Now, sometimes we loose track of the things inside of our refrigerator that we end up buying way too much and letting the old goodies spoil. Whether it be food or cooking ingredients, there’s just so much stuff in the refrigerator that you barely have time and the opportunity to use all of them.

It is advisable to do your groceries limiting yourself to one week and one week only, aside from the certain regular condiments, your consumable food should only be good for a week. Beyond that, you’d have a hard time keeping track of what’s in your fridge and what food you’d actually be able to eat. This is just one of the basic things to do when it comes to stacking up your refrigerator. There are so many other ways to utilize your refrigerator.

If you are fond of cooking, you know exactly what you just have to have in the refrigerator and what you don’t actually need. Sadly, the more things you stuff into the refrigerator, the less you actually utilize them. This is very common among all of us. We tend to buy a whole lot of produce only to end up eating outside. What a waste! Make sure you’ve thought about how much food you actually consume in a week. If you have a family, it’s good to make sure that you have enough for everyone. Don’t worry, there’s always a backup plan.

Clutter in your refrigerator usually reduces the appeal of the refrigerator itself. Well, nobody likes an empty fridge. But then again, nobody like one with old leftover, useless produce, and maybe even spoiled food inside. Yuck! Make sure to treat your refrigerator with respect by not overloading it but at the same time, make sure you have enough for yourself.

The moment your food starts to get pushed at the back, you should probably have a longer look at what is actually inside your refrigerator. There’s always this tempting habit of ours to leave our unfinished food in the refrigerator with the thought of being able to finish it later. Sadly, this rarely happens. Nobody really likes waste but instead of trying to reuse your old food, it’d be much better to just control how much food you intend to buy. Clean out your refrigerator and you’ll see how amazing it can be.

What Causes Sore Throat?

The unpredictable weather of Singapore can sometimes cause havoc in our bodies. One common complaint is sore throat.

The first sign is usually the pain when swallowing food and liquid. It’s also accompanied by itchiness, irritation, coughing, fever, sneezing, headache, dryness in the throat, hoarse voice, runny nose, and chills.

Sore throat is caused by viruses and has flu-like symptoms. People with allergies and weak immune system are prone to sore throat. Smokers and children also develop them more often.

Causes of Sore Throat
Having a flu or cold can cause sore throat. It’s usually also the first sign that you have a cold. Other viral infections including measles, larynx infection, chickenpox and mononucleosis also cause sore throat. If the sore throat is caused by bacteria it’s called strep throat.

Besides viral and bacterial causes, other factors can also cause sore throat, such as strain on the throat by talking and shouting too much, allergies that cause nasal irritation, smoking, and exposure to dry air.

Strep Throat and Tonsilitis
Strep throat almost has the same symptoms as sore throat but it’s caused by a bacterial infection and also affects the tonsils. Its name is taken from the bacteria which causes the symptoms, Streptococcus pyogenes. Other bacterial infections that cause strep throat are whooping cough and diphtheria.

Tonsilitis can also have the same symptoms, but you need to check if you also have the following: swollen lymph glands, bad breath, swollen tonsils and fever. Tonsilitis can also be viral or bacterial and primarily causes inflammation of the tonsils making it difficult to swallow food, even saliva.

Home Remedies
Fortunately, sore throat can be treated at home. Adults can use throat lozenges. For younger children, these should not be given as they might choke on them. Salt and warm water gargles, sprays and using humidifiers at home can also help. There are also anti-inflammatory medicines and decongestants for sore throat.

Drink water regularly and avoid any irritants if you’re allergic. Other symptoms such as fever and cold can also be treated with over-the-counter drugs. Avoid sharing items with other members of the family and always wash your hands. It can be contagious so cover your mouth whenever you cough or sneeze.

Calling a Doctor
Gastroesophageal reflux disease also causes sore throat because of the stomach acid in the esophagus. In extreme cases, sore throat is a symptom of throat cancer or HIV.

Get yourself checked if the pain is associated with a tenderness in the neck, palpitations, swollen face, lightheadedness, rashes, joint pains, ear pain, very high fever and when it’s difficult to swallow or breathe. It should not last more than a week as well.

Children sometimes refuse to eat so it makes treatment more difficult. It’s recommended that you take the child to the doctor as soon as possible.

The doctor will determine if the cause is viral or bacterial before giving you instructions for treating sore throat. Bacterial infection requires antibiotics, so self-diagnosing is a no-no. Antibiotics do not work against viral infections after all.

What is a Migraine Attack?

What is the difference between a migraine and a headache? That is the first thing that people ask to migraineurs, or those who suffer from migraines. Well, migraine is not just a headache. The headache is just a symptom.

Headaches can be treated with over-the-counter medicines and rest. The headache in a migraine attack however is accompanied by other symptoms such as sensitivity to light, air, water, smell, sound and even movement and touch. Regular pain relievers don’t work.

Those are not just the symptoms however. Various reports from patients list a variety of symptoms and triggers. Others feel sensitive to almost everything that has to do with the senses, feel nausea and vomiting, and even see lights in the corners of the eyes.

The intensity of the pain also differs as well as the duration of the symptoms. That is why during an attack, the person has no choice but to lie still for hours. It can be a crippling condition and can ruin your routine and relationships when not properly understood and managed.

Types of Migraine
According to various institutions such as the World Health Organization, all types of migraines can be classified under two major categories, migraine with aura and migraine without aura.

1. Migraine With Aura
This type is usually accompanied by blurry vision or seeing lines or light (phosphenes) or losing vision (or scotoma) during an attack. The person will also experience tingling, weakness and numbness. Sometimes the changes in the vision are warning signs of an oncoming attack. Other cases report the sensitivity to touch, losing the ability to comprehend language, confusion, and distortion of perspective. Studies also show migraineurs with this type are at a high risk of having a stroke.

2. Migraine Without Aura
This is the most common type of migraine that usually lasts for 4 hours to three days. The migraineur feels a throbbing pain in the side or most of the head. It can be debilitating. The person might be sensitive to sound or light, feel dizzy and experience diarrhea and vomiting.

Some women also experience migraine attacks related to the menstrual cycle. This happens because the estrogen levels fall low just before the period.

Since there is no known cause for migraines, there is also no known cure. But the symptoms can be managed and the attacks prevented. Some people may have inherited the condition from relatives or developed it from bad lifestyle habits such as stress, alcohol and lack of sleep. There are also people who develop migraine because of hormonal changes.

The best way to determine what triggers a migraine is to keep a diary. List down all the food, beverages and activities within a day. The doctor will then examine the diary to determine what type of migraine you have, the triggers, and a plan how to manage the symptoms during an attack.

If you need more information, the website provides a list of clinics and alternative pain relief for migraines. If you suspect that you have a migraine, visit the neurology division in the hospital nearest you.

Types of Arrhythmia You Should Be Aware Of

Arrhythmia means abnormal or irregular heartbeat. A cardiologist in Singapore will tell you that arrhythmia is normal when it occurs due to the heart’s regular processes.

Normal Heartbeat

To check if your heartbeat is within normal range, remember that adults in rest usually have 60 to 100 beats per minute. Check your pulse by placing your index and third fingers on the wrist or at the side of your windpipe. Count the number of beats in 15 seconds while checking the clock or timer. Then multiply the number of heartbeats by 4 to get the beats per minute.

Newborns have a heart rate between 95 to 160, while a one-year-old usually has 90 to 150 beats. Older children aged 6 to 8 years will have lower heartbeat ranging from 60 to 110.

It’s normal to go over 100 beats per minute when you are active. You should be worried when your heartbeat is consistently above 100 even when you are at rest or if you are not a professional athlete. Consult the best cardiologist nearest you when you see these symptoms.

Abnormal Heartbeat

There are a lot of things that can cause abnormal heartbeat besides seeing your crush in the office. When you factors such as caffeine intake, smoking, consumption of alcoholic beverages, intake of cold and cough medications, prescription of psychotropic drugs for mental illnesses, prescribed appetite suppressants, Beta-blockers for people with hypertension, the use of anti-arrhythmics, and dangerous drugs abuse can all cause abnormal or irregular heartbeats.

The following factors can also influence the number of beats per minute: temperature of the surroundings, your fitness level, the activities you have performed before you took your pulse, your body size, the medications you take everyday including vitamin supplements, your emotions, and your body’s position while taking the pulse. During a heart screening, it’s not unusual for your cardiologist in Singapore to take your blood pressure while you’re standing, sitting and lying down.

Causes of Arrhythmia

Arrhythmia happens when the electrical signals to your heart don’t work in perfect harmony with the body’s needs. The symptoms are not so obvious, but if you experience the following on more days than usual, you should seek help from a Singapore cardiologist: sudden weakness, dizziness and breathlessness, feeling of fainting or actual fainting, lightheadedness and a fluttering in the chest.

Arrhythmia is caused by many issues and lifestyle habits such as high blood pressure, heart disease, diabetes, taking of supplements or herbal products, side effect of medications, smoking and drinking alcoholic beverages, drug abuse, too much caffeine, hyperthyroidism, excessive stress, and heart scarring from patients who have had a heart attack. The heart doctor will recommend heart screening tests to determine the best treatment.

A heart surgeon might perform surgical procedures for pre-existing conditions like damaged valves. If you have coronary artery disease for example, the heart surgeon will recommend an artery bypass grafting.

Types of Arrhythmia

Arrhythmia is classified into 4 types. These are bradycardia or slow heart beat, irregular or extra heartbeats, tachycardia or fast hearbeat, and ventricular arrhythmia.

1. Bradycardia. Called bradyarrhythmias, it refers to the condition characterized by slow heart rate. Most people who experience this do not get enough blood to their brains that is why they have fainting spells. Those who have had heart attacks, are taking Beta blockers, calcium channel blockers and anti-arrhythmia medication, have blood chemical imbalance such as low potassium levels, and thyroid problems are all at risk of bradycardia. The cardiologist might recommend a pacemaker or prescribe different medication.

2. Irregular or Extra Heartbeats. Sometimes called premature beats, it is the most common and is mostly harmless. You are recommended, however, to go to the nearest heart doctor in Singapore if it happens more than usual. Premature beats can be caused by pre-existing heart illnesses, excessive stress, excessive exercise, and taking too much nicotine or caffeine. There are two types of irregular heartbeats.

Premature atrial contractions (PACs) happen in the atria or the heart’s upper chambers. Premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) occur in the ventricles or lower chambers of the heart.

3. Ventricular Arrhythmia. Ventricular tachycardia, also called ventricular arrhythmia, begins in the heart’s ventricles. There are 2 types of ventricular arrhythmia.

Ventricular tachycardia is a condition characterized by a fast, regular beat in the ventricles. The episode can happen for a few seconds and sometimes lasts longer. Ventricular fibrillation is the quivering of the ventricles caused by a faulty electrical signal. This can cause cardiac arrest in some patients in Singapore. The doctor will recommend an electric shock to treat it after a heart screening. The cardiologist associates this condition with weakened hearts caused by pre-existing conditions.

4. Supraventricular Tachycardia. Also called supraventricular arrhythmias, it happens when fast heart rates occur in the atria or atrioventricular node of the heart. Tachycardia means fast heartbeat, while the atrioventricular node is the name for the group of cells between the atria and the ventricles. There are three types of supraventricular tachycardia.

Atrial fibrillation is characterized by an irregular and fast contraction of the atria. The electrical signals to the heart travel abnormally from either the pulmonary veins or a part of the atria. The atria walls fibrillate or quiver very fast. It can lead to heart failure because there isn’t enough blood or causes stroke because of the blood clots. Atrial flutter has the same symptoms as atrial fibrillation but the signals spread in the atria are in fast and regular pace.

Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia is characterized by an abnormally fast heart rate that occurs suddenly in a short period of time. It begins and stops abruptly with the signal traveling from the atria to the ventricles and then reentering the atria again. The result is that there are extra heartbeats caused by the problems in electrical connection that occurs between the chambers of the heart. One type of this arrhythmia is called the Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome which causes the electrical signal in the heart to travel in an extra path.

8 Factors to Consider When Choosing an Emergency Plumber

For those of us who are unfamiliar with how plumbing works, any plumbing issue can be quite difficult to sort out on own – especially if it occurs during ungodly hours. Most people who attempt solving difficult plumbing issues by themselves often end up getting injured or just making the situation worse. The best way to keep these things from happening is to hire an emergency plumbing contractor whom you can trust. With that in mind, we listed down some important factors you should consider when looking for a plumber to handle your plumbing emergency needs.

1. Level of Professionalism

Perhaps one of the most important factor you should consider when choosing a 24 hours plumber is the person’s level of professionalism. Understand that not every plumbing contractor have the skills to take on certain types of plumbing issues. This is why it’s crucial that you first determine the quality of the plumbing services your prospective plumber is offering, as well as how they treat their customers. Doing this will give you an idea as to what kind of service you will receive from your chosen plumbing contractor.

2. Availability

You will never be able to tell when a plumbing emergency will happen, which is why putting an emergency plumber’s availability into consideration is also important. Imagine experiencing a plumbing emergency that needs to be fixed immediately in the middle of the night and not having an emergency plumber ready to cater to your needs. Sounds stressful, right? This is why it’s crucial that you hire a plumbing contractor who can provide round-the-clock services, as such plumber would be willing to provide your plumbing needs at any hour. Just be prepared to spend a bit more when you request for his plumbing services, though.

3. Insurance and License

Another important factor to consider when choosing an emergency plumber is the bonds, insurance and license that he has. These certifications serve as a proof that he has undergone all the proper training and has acquired the knowledge necessary to take on all types of plumbing issues. Also, hiring an insured plumbing contractor gives you an assurance that your interest is protected, should something go wrong with the repair job that he completed. Just be sure to hire one from a reputable company like in Singapore so you can ensure that he will provide reliable service in times of emergencies.

4. Plumbing Services Offered

The types of services the plumber is offering is another vital factor that you should put into consideration. Given that they provide 24-hour plumbing services, your chosen plumber should be able to perform all sorts of plumbing repair and provide quick solutions to the specific needs and problems of your plumbing system. With this, you will be able to rest assured knowing that your chosen emergency plumber is capable of providing the most fitting solution to plumbing emergencies.

5. Cost of Emergency Plumbing Services

Professional plumbing contractors often come to their customer’s home to check on the issue and give a quotation of how much it will cost to fix the problem. The same thing goes for most emergency plumbers, so be sure to ask your contractor for a detailed estimate of the labour and equipment costs. If possible, have different plumbers provide an estimate for your plumbing issue prior to an emergency, and ask why one charges cheaper (or costlier) than his competitors. Through this, you will get an idea as to which emergency plumber offers good quality service at a reasonable price.

6. Location

While it may not seem like it, your location is actually an important factor to consider when looking for an emergency plumber. To avoid needlessly spending more on your plumbing repairs, it would be best to hire an emergency plumbing contractor who works within your area in Singapore. Employing plumbers outside your area can be quite expensive, as they will likely ask for call out fees and other service charges. So be sure to check and compare the nearest plumber options that you have to save both your time and money.

7. Materials and Equipment Used

Another important factor that you should consider is the materials and equipment that will be used on the repair job. Some plumbers tend to use substandard materials as an alternative to the high grade ones on their plumbing works to get more money from their customers. If you continue ignoring or staying unaware of this plumbing scam then you will likely find yourself calling your emergency plumber every now and then to perform small repairs. Understand that as a home- or a business owner, it is your duty to ensure that your chosen plumbing contractor only uses high quality materials to complete your repair job.

8. Response Time

When hiring an emergency plumber, one of the important factors to consider is their response time during an emergency plumbing situation. Failing to get a quick solution for a particular plumbing issue could result to serious damages that could significantly increase your home repair expenses. So make sure that you stay in touch with a reliable plumber who provides round-the-clock services to help in minimizing your plumbing issues and expenses.

Although finding a skilled and reliable emergency plumber in your area in Singapore may seem like a daunting task, knowing what important factors to consider will surely help in making sure that you hire someone who knows their work well and does not leave you with an unfinished or unsatisfactory result.

Clothing Pieces Every Men Should Have

Who says only women can be fashion-conscious? Here are the clothes every man should have for every occasion.

Tailored Suit. Renting suits for formal occasions can be a hassle especially if you can’t find the right size. If you’re in a hurry too, going to the tailor isn’t an option. You should have your own black suit that fits you perfectly.

Brown or Black Dress Shoes. They go well with suits and any formal attire. You should have both colors for variety, but you’ll never go wrong with black dress shoes alone.

Leather Belt. Besides the belts you use for casual attire, you should also invest in a black or brown leather belt for formal attires.

A Set of Ties. Even if you don’t need to wear a tie at the office, you still need to have at least one plain-colored tie at home to go with other outfits.

Straight-Cut Blue Jeans. Straight-cut jeans are a classic. Even with the introduction of different cuts for men, a lot of guys still prefer straight cut. Blue jeans can be paired with almost any shirt and shoes.

Trainers. A lot of guys love sneakers, but not all types were designed for outdoors and training. You should have at least one that you can use at the gym or when you’re out jogging with your friends at the park.

White Undershirt. A white undershirt should be worn under a button-up shirt. A lot guys take for granted that they don’t need to wear a bra like other women, but some men are endowed with noticeable nipples.

Sunglasses. They protect your eyes from the harsh UV rays and also make you look more stylish overall. Pick shades that go well with your outfit. There are sunglasses too that are made for sports and outdoors.

Gray Sport Coat. Sport coats are the equivalent of blazers for women. They can be worn over casual or formal attires. The gray color doesn’t clash with other colors in your outfit.

Khaki Pants. If you’re tired of blue jeans, you should also have a selection of khaki pants for variety. Besides neutral colors like brown, there are also khaki pants in other shades as well.

Sweatshirt With Hoodie. Don’t you just love the designs on the sweatshirts? If you have money to spare, you should check out some of the designer hoodies available.

Plain T-Shirts. Plain t-shirts can be layered with other clothes and don’t distract the eyes unlike printed shirts. They can also serve as another option besides the white undershirt.

Moccasins. You should have another option besides your sneakers and dress shoes. Moccasins look stylish and can be paired with both formal and casual outfits. They’re also very comfy.

Top 10 Most Notoriously Difficult Retro Video Games

You thought that your last boss fight was gruelling so you brag about it to your friends. Before you declare yourself the ultimate gamer however, you should try these notoriously difficult titles. Beware, many a controller and joystick have been the brunt of frustration over the years.

1. Punch-Out!!
Although this 1987 game itself isn’t difficult, it’s infamous for its final fight against the pixel version of then-real life World Heavyweight Champion Mike Tyson. The player controls Little Mac who wants to go up the boxing ranks.

2. Ninja Gaiden
This is one of those games that test your patience. The player takes on the role of half-dragon half-human Hayabusa Ryuu. Ladies, you should let your boyfriends play this game and watch their reaction every time the character dies.

3. Souls Series
During particularly challenging fights, some of us pause the game to regain composure. But in Demon’s Souls, the first installment of the series, it won’t even give you that reprieve. When you die, you return to the beginning of the level with a lower health bar.

4. Contra
Eight levels sound too easy, but with only three lives, trying not to get hit seems unfair. It was also the game that made cheat codes popular. Why? Because it’s just that difficult to complete without cheating.

5. Battletoads
A lot of players place this within the top 3 of the most difficult games. The players guide the toads in their quest to defeat the Dark Queen and her mutants. It may look like any other platformer but the game has only three continues and no saves.

6. Ghosts ‘n Goblins
Think evading the enemy is your specialty, huh? If you’re a bit on the masochist side, in this game your character Arthur can die after two hits. Test your button-mashing skills by evading traps and getting past enemies to rescue Princess Prin-Prin.

7. Faster Than Light
This spaceship simulator sounds cool but once you find out that you’re in-charge of the entire crew and the ship operations, your opinion might change. Once you lose all your crew or your ship is destroyed, you’ll have to start all over again. It doesn’t matter if you have a saved game because it will be deleted.

8. Super Meat Boy
Rescuing a kidnapped girlfriend has never been this hard. The animation looks cute, but it’s not so cute anymore when you have to get through 300 levels with near-perfect reflexes and god-like patience to start over and over and over again.

9. F-Zero GX
Love racing games? Try your luck with winning against other competitors or controlling Captain Falcon until he defeats Black Shadow and Deathborn. The obstacles alone are a test of patience. There’s no smooth driving in this game.

10. I Wanna Be the Guy: The Movie: The Game
Once you get over that crappy name for a game, you’ll notice that this game must have been designed solely to make people’s lives miserable. Only memorization from trial-and-error can get you through.

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