There are world-famous attractions that you should experience at least once in your life, such as the Eiffel Tower in Paris, the Marina Bay Sands in Singapore and the Bali beaches in Indonesia. These are the first places you’d expect travellers to visit.
However, there are plenty of places to explore that are off the beaten path—often known only by the locals. Here, we put together five hidden gems around the world that are under the radar, but are definitely worth the trek.
Margaret River, Australia
While most travellers to Australia stick to the eastern side, where you’ll find Melbourne, Sydney and the infamous Great Barrier Reef, the Margaret River region offers a fascinating reason to explore the western coast of the country. Margaret River, Australia’s popular wine region, boasts scenic opportunities for caving, surfing, hiking and art-museum hopping.
Tinago Falls, Iligan City, Philippines
You have to make the journey down the 500-step stairs to reach this mesmerizing waterfall in Iligan City. From the name itself—Tinago, which means hidden—you’ll find a cave you can venture tucked behind the waterfalls.
Kelowna, British Columbia, Canada
Exploring Kelowna may not be common on most travellers’ to-go list, but should be. Located in the valley of Okanagan, you can venture through the glorious mountains, pine forests, orchards, lakes, vineyards and sandy beaches. If that’s not enough for a breathtaking view, check out Know Mountain Park and Lake.
Cannaregio, Venice, Italy
Among the least visited spots in one of the world’s most romantic countries, this little Venetian neighbourhood was once a home to the Jewish community during the 16th century. Escape the crowded tourist sights of Venice by getting lost in one of its many alleyways while making friends with the locals.
Desert Nomad House, Arizona
If you just feel the urge to just run away from everything, the Desert Nomad House in Arizona is the perfect place to go. The simple steel box house consists of a 780-square foot living room, kitchen, dining and bathroom area and a 440-square-foot bedroom with an office. Being situated in the middle of vast desert, next to nothingness, makes it the perfect epitome of a tranquil getaway.
Of course, there are plenty of lesser known destinations that were not on this list. But if you’re looking for an absolute rest and relaxation, away from the noise of the crowd, this list is a great way to start your vacation plans.
You’ve just earned your college degree and are ready to head out on your own. Finding a place to be your new home will be exciting, stressful, confusing, difficult and rewarding all at the same time.
But of course, like most things in life, you can avoid unnecessary confusion and minimize stress by preparing in advance. Doing some research before deciding to move out will save tons of heartache—and cash—in the future.
The Right Place
Before going on your own, you have to find the right place for you. This first step can be tough. Not just because you’ll likely have to wade through several dozens of options, but also because there’s some pressure involved. After all, you will be living in this place for at least the next six months of your life, right?
Is the place affordable? Is it in an ideal neighbourhood? Does it provide the convenience you need, like near your workplace, a hospital, a mall or a police station? And most importantly, do you like it? Finding the right apartment is the most important part of moving out. It’ a major investment, so it should be considered a top priority.
If you lived in a dorm during college, you probably have an idea about home essentials. Let’s say you already have the toiletries and home cleaners (if not, buy them first). The next thing to do is to fill your cupboard with kitchen essentials, such as salt, pepper, butter, flour and various spices. After all, you’re a college graduate now; it’s time to ditch the instant noodles and pre-packed food.
Then, invest on quality cookware and dinnerware, which includes pots and pans, plates and cups, spoon and fork and other miscellaneous items.
Lastly, after securing the aforementioned essentials, it’s time to shop around for furniture. This includes couches, desks, side tables, dining chairs, a dining table, a bed, coffee tables… you name it. To make it cost-efficient, research their prices and look for places where you can get quality items for less.
Explore Your New Neighbourhood
Once you have everything in place, it’s time to make yourself feel at home. Explore the neighbourhood for restaurants, coffee shops and local grocery. Roam around to see if there are any cool places to watch movies or hang out with friends.
And don’t be afraid to ask around. Knock on doors and introduce yourself. Part of moving to a new apartment is actually embracing it and living in it. This means not only filling your space with furnishings, but becoming part of the neighbourhood as well.
Moving to a new place is no easy feat, physically and mentally. But the sooner you start planning and by keeping these important points in mind, the easier it is to find the right home and neighbourhood for you.
Do you drink alcohol? Alcohol has benefits if taken moderately but if you consumed too much, be prepared for its adverse effects. You may not like what it can do with your head. Hangover is inconvenient and pretty annoying not to mention troubling. There are many tricks so you can lessen hangover if not totally avoid it. It does not end there because alcohol can also provoke aggression and mood swings – all bad things.
If you really enjoy alcohol but hate hangover, loss of control and liver damage at the end of the session, you would wish that there is something close to alcohol without these effects. The good news is that there is a product recently developed as an alcohol alternative. This sounds promising. The alternative is called Alcosynth. Here are some things that you need to know about it:
Alcosynth is made to imitate the positive effects of alcohol but without its devastating after effects. This is developed by Professor David Nutt. It is a version of benzodiazepine which is prescribed to treat anxiety. However, the best part is that it will not cause any withdrawal symptoms. It can make you tipsy but without throbbing head, dry mouth and nausea.
Will it replace the normal alcohol?
According to the developer, Professor Nutt, who was a former adviser on drugs, said that Alcosynth can potentially replace the normal alchohol come 2050. For booze lovers out there, he said that it will be available alongside your usual gin and scotch in the future. The best part is that one can dispense it into the cocktail and you get the same pleasure without the inconvenient hangover and potential damage to the heart and liver – which can save a lot of lives.
What are the issues behind it?
Why is it not in the market already? There is news saying that Alcosynth can have a “seismic effects on public health”. It is still not available especially bars in the United Kingdom let alone here in Singapore. Despite the positive results Alcosynth promises, it faces punitive regulations. The government should not stand in the way of this new alcohol. Regulations need to be encouraging as well as flexible for the health of the people around.
Hopefully this product gets to the market as soon as possible so it can save more lives. This is like e-cigarettes. People should continue to develop products that are actually safer. You get to enjoy it but eliminating the harm it can cause.
You’ve chosen to have a wedding live music on your wedding reception to give quality entertainment and to add sparkle to the celebration. Before you start searching for the right kind of Singapore wedding live band, be sure to answer these guidelines first.
1. Determine a price range. Whether you’re a bride on a budget or just want to go lavish with your wedding live music, set a price range that you think you can afford for your wedding live band. The bands’ prices will differ depending on the accommodation, travel costs, number of musicians and the quality of the chosen live band.
2. Determine the demographics. Unless you’re either very old or very young, most likely, you will have guests in wide age-range. It is acceptable that you should choose your preferred band style, but make sure they will play something for the grannies as well. Also, determine whether for an amazing wedding live band in Singapore you would want a female or male vocals singing for everybody, or you can also have both for versatility.
3. Determine what band is allowed in the venue. Some venues only allow 3-4 musicians for an entertainment band. There are also some that have noise limits, therefore rock bands and heavy disco bands are not advisable for these types of venues.
4. Try Looking For Local Bands. Local talents mean less talent fee and travel expenses. Also, bands prefer to play in locations near their homes. By doing so, you can probably get discounts for the overall live band quote. You can Google search “wedding live band Singapore” and be surprised of what you will find.
5. How long will the band perform. The standard playing time of a live band is either 3x40mins or 2x60mins. Usually, bands fill-in gaps with recorded or iPod music through sound systems. If you want the band to play longer, check their song list if it has enough songs to fill-in extra time.
6. Shortlist 3-5 bands based on the criteria and demos/videos. After answering the first 5 steps above, shortlist 3-5 wedding live band in Singapore and see them perform live or ask for a recorder video. The best way to check the band’s quality, aside from watching them live, is to see a live video clip of one of their show. Keep in mind that it’s the voice and the versions of their songs you’re looking for, not the video quality. The live video clips will surely give you pure honesty performances.
7. Contact the shortlisted bands. Start calling every band that has been qualified according to our criteria. Start by asking for their availability. Top quality bands get fully booked almost a year in advance. It is advisable to start looking 12-10 months to get the best Singapore wedding live band. Compare each band’s prices and choose the one with the best deals.
8. Once you have decided, book them as soon as possible. A band can only perform in one place at a time. Once you have confirmed that they are available on your said date, immediately ask them to send you a contract. Read, understand and scan the contract for your personal copy. After that, pay the initial amount so you can be sure that the band will have no reason not to be in your event.
Not all women here in Singapore know about Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS). It is time that you need to be aware of PCOS because it may inflict you. PCOS is a condition in which your progesterone and oestrogen hormones are out of balance. If it is ignored, it can lead to ovarian cyst. PCOS can affect a woman’s appearance, fertility and menstrual cycle.
It is about time that you understand PCOS. Here are the things that you should know about it:
The disappointing thing is that there is no exact cause of this condition however doctors believe that genetics and hormonal imbalances play a major role. In most cases, a woman may develop PCOS if her mother/sister has the condition. Another factor may be the overproduction of androgen hormone. Androgen is actually a male hormone but a woman’s body also produce such. If a woman produces higher levels of androgen, then she can develop PCOS.
The symptoms of PCOS will start after a woman start to menstruate however the severity and the type varies. The common symptom is irregular menstrual periods. You already know that the condition is marked by decrease in female sex hormones. When this happens, a woman tend to develop more male characteristics like thinning hair, decreasing of breast size, deeper voice and excess hair on stomach, chest and even the chest. Other symptoms consist of infertility, acne, anxiety, depression, weight gain and even pelvic pain.
There is no test that can accurately identify PCOS. To make such diagnosis, the doctor will need to evaluate your medical history and consider your symptoms then conduct series of test to rule our possible conditions. Your doctor will accomplish pelvic examination and look if ovaries or clitoris is swollen. Blood tests could also be ordered because it can measure your hormone levels.
You have to know that the treatment is not curative. This means that the treatments will only focus on controlling the symptoms as well as preventing the complications. The least thing that you can do is to maintain a healthy lifestyle. It will start with your diet as well as regular exercise.
PCOS can lead to complications like hypertension, breast cancer, high cholesterol, diabetes, anxiety, depression, heart attack, sleep apnoea and even endometrial cancer. If you are pregnant, you have to be careful because if you have PCOS, you are at risk of miscarriage. The earlier PCOS is treated, the lower your risk of developing such complications.
Although the cases of breast cancer among teenage girls in Singapore is small, it’s never too early to teach your daughter about breast cancer prevention and breast health, especially if you have a history of cancer in your family. To make this process easier and less awkward for you and your daughter, here are some helpful tips on how to discuss breast-related issues with your daughter.
1. Teach By Example
Even if your daughter would never admit it, she’ll look to you for guidance and if she sees you are taking care of your own breasts, it’ll encourage her to take care of hers as well. As a mom, you can teach by demonstrating. You can model an overall healthy lifestyle, exercise, and limit your alcohol intake.
If possible, talk about the disease if it has occurred in a friend or a family member. Discuss about when they should be getting their first breast cancer screening tests, as well as the importance of being aware of the changes happening in their bodies. Remember that making breast cancer a comfortable topic to discuss will raise your daughter’s awareness of the disease and curiosity to learn more about it.
2. Encourage Her to Know Her Breasts
Breast awareness is the key to prevent breast cancer and catch it early enough for a successful treatment. As early as now, your daughter should get to know her breasts and be aware of the changes that’ll occur as she matures. As young girls enter puberty stage, their breasts go through some changes as they start to develop into the mature system of lobes and ducts. Unlike the breasts of older women, young breasts have a lesser proportion of fat compared to breast tissue, making them feel very dense. As she gets older, her breasts will start to become softer and feel looser, especially during and after being pregnant.
Inform your daughter that her breasts will go through such changes throughout her teen and young adult years. But if she happens to detect any unnatural changes in her breasts such as lumps, advise her to seek the help of her healthcare provider in getting breast cancer screening tests.
3. Inform Her About Your Breast Cancer Family History
One of the best things that you can do to protect your daughter from breast cancer is to let her know about any breast cancer history in your family. Make her understand that the disease could be passed on from generation to the next through a variety of mutated genes.
Before doing a screen for breast cancer in Singapore and apart from informing her about the medical history of first-degree relatives, you should also consider informing your child about the medical history of your second- and third-degree relatives. By doing this, your daughter will be able to properly inform her doctor about your family history by the time she undergoes several clinical exams and breast cancer screening Singapore tests.
4. Raise Breast Cancer Awareness Without Using Fear
How you approach your daughter about breast cancer influences her feelings and thoughts about the disease. You certainly wouldn’t want to bring up the issue in a way that keeps her up at night worrying whether or not she has it, particularly given that teenage girls rarely get diagnosed with the disease.
The incidence of breast cancer among teen girls is so small that it isn’t often reported in the national breast cancer statistics. Still, Singapore health experts believe that sensibly talking about the disease will make it less frightening for your daughter and will greatly help in empowering her to be proactive about her own breast health.
5. Urge Her to Join Breast Cancer Awareness Groups and Programs
Although no cure has still been found for breast cancer, early detection and education programs continue to serve as women’s strong defences against the disease. So encourage your daughter to take part in breast cancer awareness groups that push women, young and old alike, to know what is normal for their own breasts and to seek their doctor’s advice regarding any changes in their breasts.
You and your daughter can learn more and help spreading awareness about the disease by getting involved in groups that promote breast cancer campaigns. Through this, women of all ages are able to educate themselves and get their friends involved in their own breast health.
Other Quick Tips to Teen Breast Health
Apart from the aforementioned tips, you can also use the following checklist to teach your daughter about breast cancer and their breast health.
• Encourage her to be aware of her breast health, and to inform you or a doctor if there’s a persistent change in her breasts that just doesn’t feel right.
• Inform your daughter’s physician about your family history of breast cancer, and discuss its risk factors and prevention with your daughter.
• Teach your daughter to make healthy lifestyle choices to reduce her breast cancer risk.
• Motivate her to learn more about the disease so it’ll seem less frightening, and give her the ability to support relatives or friends who are diagnosed with the disease.
• Guide her towards quality books and websites that provide accurate information about breast health and cancer prevention strategies like breast self-exams, regular doctor visit and risk factor reduction
Teaching your daughter about the importance of breast health care and breast cancer prevention will surely keep her safe from the disease, and spread the awareness through her friends. So talk to your child about breast cancer today, and together, take the pledge to know your ‘girls’ more.
Your eyeglasses and sunglasses are important investments. They are as valuable as your watch and jewelry, but more essential especially if you’re wearing prescription glasses.
It’s important to keep your eyewear clean everyday to avoid scratches and other damages. You can wash your eyewear by rinsing them under the tap. Use a drop dishwashing liquid to remove the dirt. Wipe the lenses with clean cloth, preferably microfiber cloth to avoid scratches. You can also use a lens solution. Never use cleaners that are not designed for eyewear like window or gadget cleaners. After washing, dry with cotton cloth or anything that’s made of lint-free soft material. You can also let them air dry if you’re not going to use them right away. Wipe the nosepads, frames and temples gently.
Inspect your glasses everyday before you wear them. Check if the screws are lose. Check for damages in the nosepads, hinges and the temples. Check if the lenses are clean and scratch-free. Wipe them gently with cloth designed for the lenses. Some experts however don’t recommend wiping the lenses when they’re dry. The debris might cause scratches. Don’t use tissue or rough cloth and your shirt to wipe the lenses. The fabric could cause scratches and you’re not even sure if your shirt has dirt on it.
If you’re not using your eyewear, don’t place them just about anywhere. If you have to place them on the table, never place your eyewear with the lens down. Your glasses can be scratched, bent out of shape or even break. Place them inside the case with the lenses facing upward. Always carry your eyewear case and one clean cloth for wiping. Make sure they fit the case properly because it might distort the eyewear. There are microfiber storage pouches if you don’t want to carry a case. There are also accessories for protection of your glasses such as eyewear repair kits, retaining bands for active users, chain or cord which can be attached to the temples or hinges, and storage clips where you can safely place your glasses.
While you can tighten the loose screws in your eyewear, it’s impossible to repair the damages at home by yourself. Some stores sell eyeglass repair kits. If your eyewear has a warranty, you can also avail of that. If your prescription glasses are damaged, it might be time to have them changed. It’s also important to go for an eye checkup with your ophthalmologist at least once a year so that your lenses are updated. You might not notice that you’re prescription glasses are already outdated. If you have headaches, eye strain, and neck pains more often, perhaps you need an updated eyewear. The doctor can also check your eyewear if the frame also needs replacement. Remember that the ophthalmologist specializes in eye and vision. An optometrist isn’t a doctor but can prescribe lenses and do tests. Opticians design and assemble glasses.
Having to live with allergic rhinitis is a pain. When you wake up in the morning the first thing you do is sneeze. When you go out, your nose feels like it’s blocked. Some people even ask why you always have a cold.
It gets worse when you’re locked in a room where fresh air can’t circulate. You always have to have something to wipe your nose on, nasal spray, a face mask and the ever-reliable over-the-counter antihistamines for allergies.
What Are the Symptoms?
The reaction to contact with allergen is almost immediate. Your nose starts to itch. Any part of your face could also start to itch like your eyes, throat and mouth. People with allergic rhinitis tend to have puffy eyes as well.
You’d have difficulty smelling because your nose is stuffy. You’d start to sneeze, have runny nose and your eyes will water. Sometimes you’d cough especially if your nose is too congested that the mucus has no other way out except through your throat.
Remember that your nasal passages are also connected to your throat as well as your ears. Some people experience difficulty in hearing and sore throat as a consequence. Clogged nose and ears could cause headache because it upsets the balance on your head.
What Should I Avoid?
When allergies run in your family, there’s a small chance of avoiding it. Sometimes all it takes is for one parent to pass on that trait to the children.
The most common allergens are pollen, dust mites, mold spores, flakes of skin, and even saliva and urine from animals.
Looking at that list, you’d naturally want to avoid body products that are scented, loose powder that can irritate your nose, as well as flowers, cigarette smoke, sprays, fumes, and wood smoke. If you have to go out, always take a face mask with you to minimize contact and bring an emergency kit that contains all that you need like antihistamines, decongestants, and nasal spray.
When not managed properly, it can lead to sinusitis, ear infections and nasal polyps.
What Should I Do?
There is no treatment for allergic rhinitis. The best way to reduce the symptoms is to avoid the causes as much as possible. Make sure to go for a check-up so that the doctor can prescribe medication for other conditions like asthma and other types of allergies. Remember that allergies can run in the families so other types of allergies may also be present.
Always have antihistamines and a nasal spray ready. Clean your nasal passages everyday using a saline solution. Gargle with water and salt if you have a sore throat. Keep a stock of decongestants and corticosteroids for severe symptoms.
Keep your house always clean and well-ventilated. Remember to use a mask when you clean to avoid inhaling dirt and dust. If you have pets, train them not to sit on the chairs and bed. They should have an area of their own for sleeping and eating. Groom them regularly to reduce shedding.
With the recent advances in the HIV testing and treatment, persons diagnosed with the disease now have the reason to be more hopeful with their future. Surely, treating the virus will still be challenging, and there are several factors to be considered to maintain a good health. Still, by properly caring for yourself and getting the right medical care for your needs, you’ll surely be able to live the life you want. So don’t let following HIV treatment mistakes get in your way. Learn about them, as well as the ways on how you can completely avoid them.
1. Not Asking for Medical Care from an HIV Specialist
Health experts trained in infectious diseases such as HIV know their field well. Not only are they up-to-date on research, they’re also well-suited to track any changes and address concerns that may cause problems with your treatment plan. Even after confirming their illness through HIV testing, most people still don’t seek anonymous hiv tests from Singapore HIV specialists due to concerns about ability to pay or the worry that there may not be an effective treatment available. However, HIV support programs are available in every state of Singapore to ensure that the affected individuals receive effective treatment regardless of their capacity to pay.
2. Not Following Your Prescribed HIV Treatment Plan
Taking medicines on a daily basis is difficult, but regular medication intake is crucial in HIV care than in most health conditions. Ingesting medicines 90 percent of the time is essential for preventing drug resistance and treatment failure. Drug side effects, costs and depression are just some of the reason you may be tempted to stop following your treatment plan. If you ever encounter any of these difficulties, then consider reaching out to your doctor or a social worker. There are some proven programs that may help you stay on track with regards your treatment plan.
3. Forgetting to Take Your Medications
After getting the results of your HIV screening, it’s crucial that you take all doses of your medicines to maintain a low HIV viral load. Skipping a dose of it will only give the virus a chance to multiply throughout your body, enabling it to mutate to a drug resistant virus. When that occurs, your medication may no longer be effective against the disease. Using calendars, pillboxes, and mobile applications is a good way to remind you of your medication schedule. Having a relative or a friend help you monitor your medicine intake will be beneficial as well.
4. Failing to Inform Your Doctor About Treatment Challenges
Your doctor is always there to address your concerns and respond to your queries. If you experience challenges with your HIV treatment plan, whether it’s related with medication cost, schedule, or side effects, or you emotional state of mind, they are the people you may talk to and help you succeed. You may even ask your doctor to refer you to a social worker, or a medical centre in your area in Singapore capable of giving you the medical services you need.
5. Not Notifying your Doctor about Your HIV Symptoms
If your HIV symptoms flare, it simply means that your treatment plan isn’t working effectively. This is the reason why it’s crucial to let your doctor know about it so he or she can test your viral load and adjust your treatment plan accordingly. The virus is capable of mutating inside your body and become drug resistant over time, but don’t let this discourage you as there are other medication options available to treat HIV.
6. Taking Particular Dietary Supplements
Your HIV treatment regimen is composed of several medications that support one another – but adding a dietary supplement into this mix may cause some problems. For instance, using St. John’s wort while taking HIV medications may cause the latter to be less effective, and increase your risk of developing drug resistance. So before you consider taking any dietary supplement, do consult your doctor first to ensure that there are no risks for adverse interactions in your medicines.
7. Not Regularly Visiting Your Dentist
Getting a positive anonymous HIV test puts you at a greater risk for advanced tooth and gum disease. If your immune system is compromised due to an oral infection, it may lead to other health problems. So practise good oral hygiene on a daily basis by flossing and brushing, and do visit your dentist every six months. Remember that having a good dental care promotes a good overall health.
8. Using Drugs or Alcohol
Drinking alcohol in excess weakens the immune system, and a weakened immune system often have a harder time fending off infections. Aside from that, it also increases your risk of experiencing side effects from the medications. Smoking marijuana irritates the lungs, making you more susceptible to infections like pneumonia.
Alcohol and drugs affect the liver the most since it’s the clearinghouse of all the chemical wastes in your body including prescription medications and recreational drugs. Overworking your liver through excessive drug and alcohol use will only cause it to function ineffectively and may even leave you feeling weak.
Living with HIV can be very challenging, but by undergoing proper treatment you’ll definitely be able to maintain your health and live a long, productive life. So don’t let the aforementioned mistakes get in the way of your successful HIV treatment.
As 2016 comes to an end, it’s also the time you start making those resolutions that you might or might not stick to. Fashion-wise though, we got you covered. Here, we listed down five doable deeds you can consider for your sartorial well-being. After all, a New Year means a fresh start and your wardrobe isn’t exempted from that.
- Swap Your Skinny Jeans for Denim Pants
Believe us, we understand the appeal of figure-flattering skinny jeans, but maybe it’s time that you give your own pair of skinny jeans a break. There are tons of on-trend denim options available out there, just waiting to be explored. We recommend keeping a 70s wide-leg silhouette, a classic straight-cut denim or a chic cropped flare in your wardrobe.
- Master the Art of Layering
It’s completely possible to pull-off a layered ensemble even if you live in a country with a tropical climate like Singapore. You can simply tuck your lace blouse under your favourite romper, throw your sleeveless coat over your off-shoulder top, or layer a sheer t-shirt dress over a pleated midi. Make the most out of your clothing pieces by wearing them under or over each other.
- Wear More Colour
If you also love wearing clothing pieces set in black, grey and white colour, why not consider mixing a hint of colour into your wardrobe in 2017. It’s a resolution that we’re even willing to take on, so be sure to add a hint of pink, green or red to your ensemble next year.
- Invest in Timeless Clothing Pieces
Instead of purchasing trendy items, invest in clothing pieces that you’ll wear until you’re old, and subsequently pass down to your children. Some of the good suggestions include the Cartier Love bracelet, a Mansur Gavriel bucket bag and a pair of black Louboutin pumps. You definitely won’t regret investing in these classic pieces.
- Start Showing Off Some Skin
This doesn’t mean that you should bare it all – there are classy and stylish ways on how you can show some skin. For instance, you can wear a one-shoulder clothing piece or a back-baring top. You could even completely cover up your body, but in a peek-a-boo and suggestive sheer. In fact, even a long-sleeved, high-necked dress can ooze some innuendo if done using a body-skimming fabric.
Staying stylish throughout the years is actually quite easy if you just know what fashion tricks to dump and to follow. To be sure that your 2017 becomes as fashionable as your 2016, ensure that you include the aforementioned deeds to your New Year’s resolution.