What Causes Sore Throat?

The unpredictable weather of Singapore can sometimes cause havoc in our bodies. One common complaint is sore throat.

The first sign is usually the pain when swallowing food and liquid. It’s also accompanied by itchiness, irritation, coughing, fever, sneezing, headache, dryness in the throat, hoarse voice, runny nose, and chills.

Sore throat is caused by viruses and has flu-like symptoms. People with allergies and weak immune system are prone to sore throat. Smokers and children also develop them more often.

Causes of Sore Throat
Having a flu or cold can cause sore throat. It’s usually also the first sign that you have a cold. Other viral infections including measles, larynx infection, chickenpox and mononucleosis also cause sore throat. If the sore throat is caused by bacteria it’s called strep throat.

Besides viral and bacterial causes, other factors can also cause sore throat, such as strain on the throat by talking and shouting too much, allergies that cause nasal irritation, smoking, and exposure to dry air.

Strep Throat and Tonsilitis
Strep throat almost has the same symptoms as sore throat but it’s caused by a bacterial infection and also affects the tonsils. Its name is taken from the bacteria which causes the symptoms, Streptococcus pyogenes. Other bacterial infections that cause strep throat are whooping cough and diphtheria.

Tonsilitis can also have the same symptoms, but you need to check if you also have the following: swollen lymph glands, bad breath, swollen tonsils and fever. Tonsilitis can also be viral or bacterial and primarily causes inflammation of the tonsils making it difficult to swallow food, even saliva.

Home Remedies
Fortunately, sore throat can be treated at home. Adults can use throat lozenges. For younger children, these should not be given as they might choke on them. Salt and warm water gargles, sprays and using humidifiers at home can also help. There are also anti-inflammatory medicines and decongestants for sore throat.

Drink water regularly and avoid any irritants if you’re allergic. Other symptoms such as fever and cold can also be treated with over-the-counter drugs. Avoid sharing items with other members of the family and always wash your hands. It can be contagious so cover your mouth whenever you cough or sneeze.

Calling a Doctor
Gastroesophageal reflux disease also causes sore throat because of the stomach acid in the esophagus. In extreme cases, sore throat is a symptom of throat cancer or HIV.

Get yourself checked if the pain is associated with a tenderness in the neck, palpitations, swollen face, lightheadedness, rashes, joint pains, ear pain, very high fever and when it’s difficult to swallow or breathe. It should not last more than a week as well.

Children sometimes refuse to eat so it makes treatment more difficult. It’s recommended that you take the child to the doctor as soon as possible.

The doctor will determine if the cause is viral or bacterial before giving you instructions for treating sore throat. Bacterial infection requires antibiotics, so self-diagnosing is a no-no. Antibiotics do not work against viral infections after all.

What is a Migraine Attack?

What is the difference between a migraine and a headache? That is the first thing that people ask to migraineurs, or those who suffer from migraines. Well, migraine is not just a headache. The headache is just a symptom.

Headaches can be treated with over-the-counter medicines and rest. The headache in a migraine attack however is accompanied by other symptoms such as sensitivity to light, air, water, smell, sound and even movement and touch. Regular pain relievers don’t work.

Those are not just the symptoms however. Various reports from patients list a variety of symptoms and triggers. Others feel sensitive to almost everything that has to do with the senses, feel nausea and vomiting, and even see lights in the corners of the eyes.

The intensity of the pain also differs as well as the duration of the symptoms. That is why during an attack, the person has no choice but to lie still for hours. It can be a crippling condition and can ruin your routine and relationships when not properly understood and managed.

Types of Migraine
According to various institutions such as the World Health Organization, all types of migraines can be classified under two major categories, migraine with aura and migraine without aura.

1. Migraine With Aura
This type is usually accompanied by blurry vision or seeing lines or light (phosphenes) or losing vision (or scotoma) during an attack. The person will also experience tingling, weakness and numbness. Sometimes the changes in the vision are warning signs of an oncoming attack. Other cases report the sensitivity to touch, losing the ability to comprehend language, confusion, and distortion of perspective. Studies also show migraineurs with this type are at a high risk of having a stroke.

2. Migraine Without Aura
This is the most common type of migraine that usually lasts for 4 hours to three days. The migraineur feels a throbbing pain in the side or most of the head. It can be debilitating. The person might be sensitive to sound or light, feel dizzy and experience diarrhea and vomiting.

Some women also experience migraine attacks related to the menstrual cycle. This happens because the estrogen levels fall low just before the period.

Since there is no known cause for migraines, there is also no known cure. But the symptoms can be managed and the attacks prevented. Some people may have inherited the condition from relatives or developed it from bad lifestyle habits such as stress, alcohol and lack of sleep. There are also people who develop migraine because of hormonal changes.

The best way to determine what triggers a migraine is to keep a diary. List down all the food, beverages and activities within a day. The doctor will then examine the diary to determine what type of migraine you have, the triggers, and a plan how to manage the symptoms during an attack.

If you need more information, the website www.migraine.sg provides a list of clinics and alternative pain relief for migraines. If you suspect that you have a migraine, visit the neurology division in the hospital nearest you.

Types of Arrhythmia You Should Be Aware Of

Arrhythmia means abnormal or irregular heartbeat. A cardiologist in Singapore will tell you that arrhythmia is normal when it occurs due to the heart’s regular processes.

Normal Heartbeat

To check if your heartbeat is within normal range, remember that adults in rest usually have 60 to 100 beats per minute. Check your pulse by placing your index and third fingers on the wrist or at the side of your windpipe. Count the number of beats in 15 seconds while checking the clock or timer. Then multiply the number of heartbeats by 4 to get the beats per minute.

Newborns have a heart rate between 95 to 160, while a one-year-old usually has 90 to 150 beats. Older children aged 6 to 8 years will have lower heartbeat ranging from 60 to 110.

It’s normal to go over 100 beats per minute when you are active. You should be worried when your heartbeat is consistently above 100 even when you are at rest or if you are not a professional athlete. Consult the best cardiologist nearest you when you see these symptoms.

Abnormal Heartbeat

There are a lot of things that can cause abnormal heartbeat besides seeing your crush in the office. When you www.harleystreet.sg/blog/heart-health-get-screened-by-a-good-cardiologist-in-singapore/ factors such as caffeine intake, smoking, consumption of alcoholic beverages, intake of cold and cough medications, prescription of psychotropic drugs for mental illnesses, prescribed appetite suppressants, Beta-blockers for people with hypertension, the use of anti-arrhythmics, and dangerous drugs abuse can all cause abnormal or irregular heartbeats.

The following factors can also influence the number of beats per minute: temperature of the surroundings, your fitness level, the activities you have performed before you took your pulse, your body size, the medications you take everyday including vitamin supplements, your emotions, and your body’s position while taking the pulse. During a heart screening, it’s not unusual for your cardiologist in Singapore to take your blood pressure while you’re standing, sitting and lying down.

Causes of Arrhythmia

Arrhythmia happens when the electrical signals to your heart don’t work in perfect harmony with the body’s needs. The symptoms are not so obvious, but if you experience the following on more days than usual, you should seek help from a Singapore cardiologist: sudden weakness, dizziness and breathlessness, feeling of fainting or actual fainting, lightheadedness and a fluttering in the chest.

Arrhythmia is caused by many issues and lifestyle habits such as high blood pressure, heart disease, diabetes, taking of supplements or herbal products, side effect of medications, smoking and drinking alcoholic beverages, drug abuse, too much caffeine, hyperthyroidism, excessive stress, and heart scarring from patients who have had a heart attack. The heart doctor will recommend heart screening tests to determine the best treatment.

A heart surgeon might perform surgical procedures for pre-existing conditions like damaged valves. If you have coronary artery disease for example, the heart surgeon will recommend an artery bypass grafting.

Types of Arrhythmia

Arrhythmia is classified into 4 types. These are bradycardia or slow heart beat, irregular or extra heartbeats, tachycardia or fast hearbeat, and ventricular arrhythmia.

1. Bradycardia. Called bradyarrhythmias, it refers to the condition characterized by slow heart rate. Most people who experience this do not get enough blood to their brains that is why they have fainting spells. Those who have had heart attacks, are taking Beta blockers, calcium channel blockers and anti-arrhythmia medication, have blood chemical imbalance such as low potassium levels, and thyroid problems are all at risk of bradycardia. The cardiologist might recommend a pacemaker or prescribe different medication.

2. Irregular or Extra Heartbeats. Sometimes called premature beats, it is the most common and is mostly harmless. You are recommended, however, to go to the nearest heart doctor in Singapore if it happens more than usual. Premature beats can be caused by pre-existing heart illnesses, excessive stress, excessive exercise, and taking too much nicotine or caffeine. There are two types of irregular heartbeats.

Premature atrial contractions (PACs) happen in the atria or the heart’s upper chambers. Premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) occur in the ventricles or lower chambers of the heart.

3. Ventricular Arrhythmia. Ventricular tachycardia, also called ventricular arrhythmia, begins in the heart’s ventricles. There are 2 types of ventricular arrhythmia.

Ventricular tachycardia is a condition characterized by a fast, regular beat in the ventricles. The episode can happen for a few seconds and sometimes lasts longer. Ventricular fibrillation is the quivering of the ventricles caused by a faulty electrical signal. This can cause cardiac arrest in some patients in Singapore. The doctor will recommend an electric shock to treat it after a heart screening. The cardiologist associates this condition with weakened hearts caused by pre-existing conditions.

4. Supraventricular Tachycardia. Also called supraventricular arrhythmias, it happens when fast heart rates occur in the atria or atrioventricular node of the heart. Tachycardia means fast heartbeat, while the atrioventricular node is the name for the group of cells between the atria and the ventricles. There are three types of supraventricular tachycardia.

Atrial fibrillation is characterized by an irregular and fast contraction of the atria. The electrical signals to the heart travel abnormally from either the pulmonary veins or a part of the atria. The atria walls fibrillate or quiver very fast. It can lead to heart failure because there isn’t enough blood or causes stroke because of the blood clots. Atrial flutter has the same symptoms as atrial fibrillation but the signals spread in the atria are in fast and regular pace.

Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia is characterized by an abnormally fast heart rate that occurs suddenly in a short period of time. It begins and stops abruptly with the signal traveling from the atria to the ventricles and then reentering the atria again. The result is that there are extra heartbeats caused by the problems in electrical connection that occurs between the chambers of the heart. One type of this arrhythmia is called the Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome which causes the electrical signal in the heart to travel in an extra path.

8 Factors to Consider When Choosing an Emergency Plumber

For those of us who are unfamiliar with how plumbing works, any plumbing issue can be quite difficult to sort out on own – especially if it occurs during ungodly hours. Most people who attempt solving difficult plumbing issues by themselves often end up getting injured or just making the situation worse. The best way to keep these things from happening is to hire an emergency plumbing contractor whom you can trust. With that in mind, we listed down some important factors you should consider when looking for a plumber to handle your plumbing emergency needs.

1. Level of Professionalism

Perhaps one of the most important factor you should consider when choosing a 24 hours plumber is the person’s level of professionalism. Understand that not every plumbing contractor have the skills to take on certain types of plumbing issues. This is why it’s crucial that you first determine the quality of the plumbing services your prospective plumber is offering, as well as how they treat their customers. Doing this will give you an idea as to what kind of service you will receive from your chosen plumbing contractor.

2. Availability

You will never be able to tell when a plumbing emergency will happen, which is why putting an emergency plumber’s availability into consideration is also important. Imagine experiencing a plumbing emergency that needs to be fixed immediately in the middle of the night and not having an emergency plumber ready to cater to your needs. Sounds stressful, right? This is why it’s crucial that you hire a plumbing contractor who can provide round-the-clock services, as such plumber would be willing to provide your plumbing needs at any hour. Just be prepared to spend a bit more when you request for his plumbing services, though.

3. Insurance and License

Another important factor to consider when choosing an emergency plumber is the bonds, insurance and license that he has. These certifications serve as a proof that he has undergone all the proper training and has acquired the knowledge necessary to take on all types of plumbing issues. Also, hiring an insured plumbing contractor gives you an assurance that your interest is protected, should something go wrong with the repair job that he completed. Just be sure to hire one from a reputable company like www.superplumbers.sg in Singapore so you can ensure that he will provide reliable service in times of emergencies.

4. Plumbing Services Offered

The types of services the plumber is offering is another vital factor that you should put into consideration. Given that they provide 24-hour plumbing services, your chosen plumber should be able to perform all sorts of plumbing repair and provide quick solutions to the specific needs and problems of your plumbing system. With this, you will be able to rest assured knowing that your chosen emergency plumber is capable of providing the most fitting solution to plumbing emergencies.

5. Cost of Emergency Plumbing Services

Professional plumbing contractors often come to their customer’s home to check on the issue and give a quotation of how much it will cost to fix the problem. The same thing goes for most emergency plumbers, so be sure to ask your contractor for a detailed estimate of the labour and equipment costs. If possible, have different plumbers provide an estimate for your plumbing issue prior to an emergency, and ask why one charges cheaper (or costlier) than his competitors. Through this, you will get an idea as to which emergency plumber offers good quality service at a reasonable price.

6. Location

While it may not seem like it, your location is actually an important factor to consider when looking for an emergency plumber. To avoid needlessly spending more on your plumbing repairs, it would be best to hire an emergency plumbing contractor who works within your area in Singapore. Employing plumbers outside your area can be quite expensive, as they will likely ask for call out fees and other service charges. So be sure to check and compare the nearest plumber options that you have to save both your time and money.

7. Materials and Equipment Used

Another important factor that you should consider is the materials and equipment that will be used on the repair job. Some plumbers tend to use substandard materials as an alternative to the high grade ones on their plumbing works to get more money from their customers. If you continue ignoring or staying unaware of this plumbing scam then you will likely find yourself calling your emergency plumber every now and then to perform small repairs. Understand that as a home- or a business owner, it is your duty to ensure that your chosen plumbing contractor only uses high quality materials to complete your repair job.

8. Response Time

When hiring an emergency plumber, one of the important factors to consider is their response time during an emergency plumbing situation. Failing to get a quick solution for a particular plumbing issue could result to serious damages that could significantly increase your home repair expenses. So make sure that you stay in touch with a reliable plumber who provides round-the-clock services to help in minimizing your plumbing issues and expenses.

Although finding a skilled and reliable emergency plumber in your area in Singapore may seem like a daunting task, knowing what important factors to consider will surely help in making sure that you hire someone who knows their work well and does not leave you with an unfinished or unsatisfactory result.

Clothing Pieces Every Men Should Have

Who says only women can be fashion-conscious? Here are the clothes every man should have for every occasion.

Tailored Suit. Renting suits for formal occasions can be a hassle especially if you can’t find the right size. If you’re in a hurry too, going to the tailor isn’t an option. You should have your own black suit that fits you perfectly.

Brown or Black Dress Shoes. They go well with suits and any formal attire. You should have both colors for variety, but you’ll never go wrong with black dress shoes alone.

Leather Belt. Besides the belts you use for casual attire, you should also invest in a black or brown leather belt for formal attires.

A Set of Ties. Even if you don’t need to wear a tie at the office, you still need to have at least one plain-colored tie at home to go with other outfits.

Straight-Cut Blue Jeans. Straight-cut jeans are a classic. Even with the introduction of different cuts for men, a lot of guys still prefer straight cut. Blue jeans can be paired with almost any shirt and shoes.

Trainers. A lot of guys love sneakers, but not all types were designed for outdoors and training. You should have at least one that you can use at the gym or when you’re out jogging with your friends at the park.

White Undershirt. A white undershirt should be worn under a button-up shirt. A lot guys take for granted that they don’t need to wear a bra like other women, but some men are endowed with noticeable nipples.

Sunglasses. They protect your eyes from the harsh UV rays and also make you look more stylish overall. Pick shades that go well with your outfit. There are sunglasses too that are made for sports and outdoors.

Gray Sport Coat. Sport coats are the equivalent of blazers for women. They can be worn over casual or formal attires. The gray color doesn’t clash with other colors in your outfit.

Khaki Pants. If you’re tired of blue jeans, you should also have a selection of khaki pants for variety. Besides neutral colors like brown, there are also khaki pants in other shades as well.

Sweatshirt With Hoodie. Don’t you just love the designs on the sweatshirts? If you have money to spare, you should check out some of the designer hoodies available.

Plain T-Shirts. Plain t-shirts can be layered with other clothes and don’t distract the eyes unlike printed shirts. They can also serve as another option besides the white undershirt.

Moccasins. You should have another option besides your sneakers and dress shoes. Moccasins look stylish and can be paired with both formal and casual outfits. They’re also very comfy.

Top 10 Most Notoriously Difficult Retro Video Games

You thought that your last boss fight was gruelling so you brag about it to your friends. Before you declare yourself the ultimate gamer however, you should try these notoriously difficult titles. Beware, many a controller and joystick have been the brunt of frustration over the years.

1. Punch-Out!!
Although this 1987 game itself isn’t difficult, it’s infamous for its final fight against the pixel version of then-real life World Heavyweight Champion Mike Tyson. The player controls Little Mac who wants to go up the boxing ranks.

2. Ninja Gaiden
This is one of those games that test your patience. The player takes on the role of half-dragon half-human Hayabusa Ryuu. Ladies, you should let your boyfriends play this game and watch their reaction every time the character dies.

3. Souls Series
During particularly challenging fights, some of us pause the game to regain composure. But in Demon’s Souls, the first installment of the series, it won’t even give you that reprieve. When you die, you return to the beginning of the level with a lower health bar.

4. Contra
Eight levels sound too easy, but with only three lives, trying not to get hit seems unfair. It was also the game that made cheat codes popular. Why? Because it’s just that difficult to complete without cheating.

5. Battletoads
A lot of players place this within the top 3 of the most difficult games. The players guide the toads in their quest to defeat the Dark Queen and her mutants. It may look like any other platformer but the game has only three continues and no saves.

6. Ghosts ‘n Goblins
Think evading the enemy is your specialty, huh? If you’re a bit on the masochist side, in this game your character Arthur can die after two hits. Test your button-mashing skills by evading traps and getting past enemies to rescue Princess Prin-Prin.

7. Faster Than Light
This spaceship simulator sounds cool but once you find out that you’re in-charge of the entire crew and the ship operations, your opinion might change. Once you lose all your crew or your ship is destroyed, you’ll have to start all over again. It doesn’t matter if you have a saved game because it will be deleted.

8. Super Meat Boy
Rescuing a kidnapped girlfriend has never been this hard. The animation looks cute, but it’s not so cute anymore when you have to get through 300 levels with near-perfect reflexes and god-like patience to start over and over and over again.

9. F-Zero GX
Love racing games? Try your luck with winning against other competitors or controlling Captain Falcon until he defeats Black Shadow and Deathborn. The obstacles alone are a test of patience. There’s no smooth driving in this game.

10. I Wanna Be the Guy: The Movie: The Game
Once you get over that crappy name for a game, you’ll notice that this game must have been designed solely to make people’s lives miserable. Only memorization from trial-and-error can get you through.

What are the Advantages of Using Laundry Services?

With our busy day-to-day schedules swamped with upcoming deadlines to beat and piles of workload we might have to take home, we fall short of hours in a day to delegate into doing personal tasks. This urges some people to hire the services of specialists to tend to their lawn, clean their windows, or even wash their laundry.

This kind of service is also practical for people who lack the experience to do these tasks efficiently, or simply if they do not possess the drive to do these tasks after a long day at work. For one, it takes time to ensure there are no stains left in your clothes after giving them a thorough washing. Simply putting them in the washing machine won’t guarantee your desired results.

With that, availing laundry service brings convenience to a lot of people given that it has a number of advantages. Laundry is among the last thing most of us would prefer to do with our free time. We’d rather spend the afternoon finishing that book we’re currently reading or watching a new movie at the cinema. With the number of specialized laundry service shops in Singapore, you wouldn’t have to worry over the condition of your garments and clothes any more.

Commercial Laundry Services

If you are availing commercial laundry services, keep in mind that the process doesn’t wash your clothes in a traditional manner. These industries work with high-quality washing machines that can clean any type of clothes, especially when you have garments using commercial washing services in Singapore which are made out of different fabric types. Some of these clothes are sensitive when it comes to the laundry process. You’d want to ensure they won’t end up shrunk or damaged after giving it a wash, which is why this type of laundry service uses the most fitting laundry method suitable to the fabric.
The washing machines of various laundry services in Singapore are also equipped with state of the art technology to remove any stains on your garment. Usually, these clothes will have to undergo a process of pre-treatment of stains before they are laundered completely. A post-spotting procedure is also done afterwards which utilizes special equipment and laundry chemicals to remove any remaining stains.

Laundry services can range from commercial hotel towel washing to personal uniform laundry, which are both important and should be given utmost priority. Respectively, inappropriately washed towels can affect the reputation of a hotel in a negative light and an untidy uniform can hinder your personal branding. Either way, the clothes shouldn’t be only cleansed but they must go through quality assurance to achieve excellent outcome.


    • Convenience. The thing is, most commercial laundry services set a designated schedule for you to drop off and pick up your laundry. Others can deliver your clothes right on your doorstep depending on your desired schedule, but most establishment may charge the service with an additional price. Rest assured, however, these clothes are already ironed, steamed, folded, and ironed ready to be worn anytime and anywhere. This eradicates the hassle associated with personal laundry time.

    • Affordability. Try examining your own expenses when you do the laundry and consider the prices of the fabric conditioner, detergent, water consumption, and electricity you use in the process. You might as well throw in your time and effort in so doing. On the other hand, Singapore laundry shops charge a justifiable price for a couple of dollars to do your laundry at the expense of your personal convenience. Preferring laundry services isn’t that bad, at all, when you think of the advantages you may gain in the long run.

    • Speed. Other laundry shops can return your washed laundry as fast as 48 hours, while others designate the soonest possible day depending on the number of laundry they’re doing for the week. Local cleaners often can do your laundry quicker especially if they know it’s urgent. For instance, you can expect to get your uniform laundry as soon as possible.

    • Time. Availing the services of a laundry shop allows people to have ample time to spend on other things, such as catching up on all the sleep you’ve missed for the week or spending quality time with your loved ones. You might not have enough time in the week days to do so considering your heavy work load but you can always make time now that you are availing commercial laundry services.

    • Professional results. Since these laundry service shops specialize in dealing with your laundry of all forms and garment types, you can expect that they have formulated a specific technique and washing process which can cater to your clothes well. They abide by these processes to ensure your garments are gently cleaned, with all the stains removed, and returned to you in a pristine condition afterwards.

    • Warranty. While there are cases of your garments getting mixed up with others’ in the same laundry shop, rest assured that they will provide warranty in the event they damage or lose your clothes. If you raise the issue to the management, most of these shops will gladly fix or replace the said garments for you.

Preferring laundry services isn’t that bad, at all. We have to take into consideration not every one of us can afford enough time in the day or in the week to wash our clothes personally. When you think of the advantages you gain in the long run, commercial laundry services become practical life-savers in the modern age. The services they offer are designed to bring about fantastic results, all for a very justifiable cost.

How to Keep Your Curtains Clean

While it’s much easier to replace curtains than have them cleaned, you will be able to save more without throwing them away. There are different ways to keep them clean such as hand-washing, machine-washing, and dry-cleaning.

What makes curtains dirty?

1. If you have a naturally-ventilated home, curtains can absorb moisture and dirt from outside. During hot days in Singapore, these acquired dirt will stick and harden on the fabric.

2. Curtains act as barriers on the windows. Dirt from the rain, wind and blown dust will stick to the curtains. If you don’t clean them often, they will be more difficult to wash especially if they’re made from lightweight materials.

3. Even if you close the windows, there are still drafts and cracks where air can get through, including dirt.

4. Dirt doesn’t just come from outside your home. Curtains also collect particles from the inside. If you clean the house regularly, you should loosen the dirt on the curtains too.

5. No matter what type of ventilation you use, whether it’s air-conditioner or a fan, dust and dirt also settle on the curtains. Thick materials absorb them more readily.

6. Moisture will also affect the curtains. Some will look darker when they come into contact with water. Rain water that comes in through open windows will leave water marks on some types of fabric.

7. Odors will stick to the curtains if you don’t clean the curtains in Singapore because things such as smoke from the kitchen area or the chemicals used by the people at home.

Vacuum or Brush the Curtains

Washing your curtains weekly could potentially ruin the fabric. Even if you take them to one of the curtain dry cleaning shops in Singapore, the curtain will still be subject to wear and tear. The best curtain cleaning method is to include it in your daily cleaning routine. Use a vacuum cleaner, feather or static duster, damp cloth or dusting cloths to remove dirt on the curtains. Use a vacuum accessory for clothes so that it could pick up fine dirt from the curtains. Use damp cloth on curtains that can be cleaned with water. You don’t need to take them down to clean them. Pay special attention to the hems that touch the floor. Clean the windows and the rods too. Thick curtains should also be aired from time to time.

Spot-Clean the Curtains

Some fabrics are so sensitive, they cannot be cleaned with water-based cleaners. Others can’t be cleaned with both water-based and solvent-based products. So how do you remove a stain that can’t be cleaned by vacuuming or dusting? Spot treatment is an option. Use the foam of a water-based solution. Blot the stain using a towel or sponge. Remember than you need only the foam, not the soapy water. This is effective in formal or lined curtains. If you’re planning to use fabric softeners, forget it. They could leave stains or grease marks on the curtains. If the stain is still there, take it to the curtain cleaning services shops who can.

Hand-Wash the Curtains

Curtain cleaning by hand-washing is a safe option for fabrics that are prone to shrinking. The method is also ideal for lightweight curtains and even delicate fabrics. Check the instructions on the detergent because different materials require different concentrations of the product. Use cold water so that the stains can be rinsed off. Don’t wring or twist the curtains to make ironing easier. Heavy materials are difficult to dry so avoid hand-washing drapes (curtains made of two layers of fabric). Air-dry the curtains and avoid using the machine dryer so that creases don’t form.

Machine-Wash the Curtains

Most fabrics used in curtains can be washed in a washing machine. Pick the delicate cycle and a cool wash with a slow spin. Use a detergent made for colored and white curtains. Don’t use hot washes for fabrics like cotton because it will shrink. Heavy curtains are difficult to wash in washing machines because they take longer to dry and they might not fit in a home washer. Curtain cleaning light materials is also possible in self-service laundry shops. If you choose to use a dryer, pick the no-heat setting. Drying curtains on a clothesline is still a better method to avoid creases.

Steam-Clean the Curtains

Curtains made from heavy fabric can be steam-cleaned because they require a longer drying time. You don’t have to remove them from the rods too. Some fabrics, however, should not be cleaned with anything that uses water including steam cleaners. They key is the distance between the steamer gun and the fabric. Use a vapor steam cleaner and don’t hold it too close to the curtains. If the fabric gets wet, hold the steam cleaner farther.

Dry-Clean the Curtains

Some curtains can only be dry-cleaned. Doing this at home is risky because you’ll be exposed to chemicals, although it can still be done. Curtain dry cleaning is common in most curtain cleaning services shops. When the label on the curtain says that it’s “dry-clean only,” don’t try to do otherwise. Not all dry cleaners are the same, however. Research about the procedures and chemicals used in curtain cleaning services found in Singapore. Reading reviews and listening to recommendations will help. The rule about dry-cleaning is simple: if the curtains are expensive, send them to reputable curtain dry cleaning shops. If it can be hand-washed or machine-washed, you should do it at home.

How do I put the curtains back?

Ask the curtain cleaning services if they have can rehang the curtains for you with no extra charge. Most curtain dry cleaning shops will press, fold and pack the curtains for you. Make sure the curtains are hung in the same way before they were taken down. The side that is exposed to direct sunlight will fade over time. Only that side should be facing out.

Correct Car Maintenance Practices

Ever wondered how some car owners are able to keep their vehicles looking new even after years of driving? Not only do simple driving habits prolong the life of the car, but regular car maintenance as well.

Scheduled Maintenance

The car dealers and manufacturers in Singapore usually have a recommended schedule for car maintenance, car servicing, lubrication and car workshop. Don’t forget to read the owner’s manual or consult the dealers for this information. Most modern cars have complex systems that need to be maintained to keep them running for years.

Maintenance Don’ts

1. No regular checks on the tire pressure

Some first-time car owners often overlook this because the tires look normal at first glance. If not properly inflated, the tires could blow out or your car will be using more fuel as a result. It’s not just the rough roads that could lower the air pressure in tires, but even changes in temperature.

2. No oil changes

Most modern cars no longer require regular motor oil changes every 3,000 miles traveled. For most of the cars today, the recommended oil change interval is after a total of 7,800 miles is traveled. Just because the car doesn’t need frequent oil changing, it doesn’t mean you should ignore this either. An old motor oil can break down and will leave sludge in your engine. Remember that the motor oil is supposed to lubricate the engine parts. If the engine breaks down because of old, broken down oil, you’ll be spending more for car repair than a simple car maintenance habit.

3. Ignoring the check engine light

The check engine light should indicate if you need to have your car looked at the nearest car servicing shop in Singapore. It’s easy to overlook the indicator because usually all the lights come on in your car when you turn the key, as the people from http://www.merlinmotorworks.com/ in Singapore will tell you as well. The longer you wait, however, means that the possibility for a breakdown will be higher. In turn, the cost for repairs will also be higher.

4. Ignoring the TPMS light

This is in connection to the regular monitoring of the air pressure in your tires. In some models, the tire pressure monitoring system or TPMS light will activate when the pressure is low. If there is nothing wrong with the tires, however, the TPMS itself needs to be replaced.

5. Overheating

Sometimes overheating can’t be avoided especially during a particularly hot Singapore weather. An engine will heat up when it’s used, that is why it needs a coolant. But when the situation can’t be avoided even with regular car servicing, you should stop the car and take it to the nearest auto shop. If not, you can call for a tow.

6. No fluid checks

Just like changing the motor oil should become a part of your car maintenance routine, other fluids used to run the car should also be monitored. Car servicing should include the monitoring of the engine coolant, brake fluid, transmission fluid and power steering fluid. These should be checked, exchanged or topped off. The changing of fluids should be based on what the car manufacturer has recommended. The auto mechanic should also check for leaks.

7. No brake inspections

If the brakes start to deteriorate or are not working properly, you should immediately take your vehicle to car servicing for brake assessment and replacement. You could get in accidents if you ignore the weird noises in the car.

8. No wheel alignment

You cannot visibly check for wheel alignment by yourself. This is the kind of task that needs to be done at a car servicing shop. Car experts also recommend that you have the tires rotated every time the car has traveled 5,000 to 10,000 miles.

9. Failing to check windshield wipers

Windshield wipers can deteriorate over time because they are exposed to heat, rain, dirt and others. Once the wipers don’t clean effectively anymore, take the vehicle to a car servicing shop to replace them.

10. Incorrect cleaning of the rear windshield

Although it’s okay to clean the exterior of the car at home, using products not designed for vehicles can damage the car. Cleaning the windshield using a home glass cleaner for example, will break down the materials in the glass.

11. Use of dirty filters

The filters need to be cleaned or replaced if necessary. They keep the fuel in your tank, the air-conditioning system, and the engine clean from dust, dirt and other particles.

12. Repairing without expertise

While most car aficionados know a lot about how cars work in general, doing the car servicing yourself to save money can cost you more in the end. Modern cars are computerized and have their own monitoring system. It can alert you using the check engine light. These types of cars, however, are difficult to repair or maintain unless you have the tools and the know-how. Instead of taking chances, consult a car servicing in Singapore for a better result.

Maintenance Practices You Should Observe

These are the basic car servicing practices that you need to do regularly or as scheduled by the car manufacturer. Take your vehicle to the nearest car servicing in Singapore for check-ups, assessment and car repair.

1. Keep the exterior and interior of your car clean at all times.
2. The car’s paintjob must be waxed preferably every 6 months, but always check the manual. Take the vehicle to a car workshop.
3. Always check or change the oil and the filters. To keep the engine in good condition, this should be your priority.
4. Change the differential and transmission oils depending on the service intervals.
5. Flush the cooling system. Don’t forget to change the coolant yearly to avoid buildup of deposits and corrosion in your car’s cooling system.
6. Grease the moving parts. They need lubrication to function properly and extend their usefulness.

Guidelines for Storing Milk


Express breast milk is the most convenient option for working mothers who doesn’t want baby formula. Express breast milk is a process where mothers squeeze milk from their breast to store it. The stored breast milk can later be used to feed the baby. When taking the milk out, you either use your hands or pump (manual or electrical).

The easiest to handle for working mothers is electrical pump. In this pump, it needs battery or plug. The good thing about this it can pump one breast or both at the same time. You have to remember though that after use, the pump should be cleaned thoroughly for next use. If you do not know how to use it, you should read the label or simply asked other parents who use it. Looking for electrical breast pumps is not hard here in Singapore.

After pumping the milk, there is another challenge – storage. It is important that you know storage guidelines as milk can easily be contaminated or spoiled. Before storing, you have to remember to put the date it was expressed. The date will serve as your basis for the “consume until”. Here are some guidelines for storing milk depending on the storage used:

• At room temperature: It is recommended that the baby consume the milk right away. It is called fresh milk. For fresh milk, room temperature is okay. It should be consumed by the baby 4 to 6 hours after expressing. The milk should be covered and if possible, it is cool. Covering the container using a damp towel can help with cooling the milk.

• In insulated cooler bag: For milk stored in insulated cooler bags (with temperature of 5-39F), it can still be consumed twenty four hours after expressing. If you have insulated cooler bag, always keep in mind to put ice packs. It should be in contact with milk containers all the time and as much as possible, limit opening it.

• In refrigerator: For milk stored in the refrigerator (with temperature of <39F), it can still be consumed eight days after expressing. It is crucial that the bottles are collect to minimize spillage or spoilage. • In the freezer: For milk stored in the freezer (with temperature of 5F), it can still be consumed two weeks after it was expressed.

• In deep freezer: For milk stored in deep freezer (with temperature of -4F), the milk can last up to six to twelve months after expressing.

The shelf-life of the milk will depend on where you store it.

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